Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
A list of books is not always a useful thing. Sometimes it helps to know why the titles are being recommended. The annotated pages of this bibliography are listed in chronological order. They include titles that are currently of interest professionally, and because they explain the subject matter of urbanism, or the
making of the city.
The Earliest Sources
Book publishing began about 1458, with Guttenberg. The printing press was able to deliver 300 pages per day—a great advance over using scribes—yet, no match to a laser printer at 20 pages per minute, or 10,000 pages per day. However, it was not until Serlio pioneered the use of illustrations in treatises on architecture and urbanism that illustrations came into use alongside the printed text.  The Vitruvius manuscript was just that—all writing with no pictures. The first editions of Alberti were also sans graphics. Almost a full century after Guttenberg, in Venice, Palladio’s I Quattro Libri was among the first books published by a practitioner that combined pictures and text. Here are the earliest sources on urbanism and architecture:
  1. Vitruvius, Ten Books of Architecture (Discovered in 1415; 1486: first printing of only surviving treatise on ancient architecture and urbanism).
  2. Frontinus, De aquis urbis Romae (Discovered in  1425; an inventory of Roma’s water works explaining how to keep them in working order).
  3. Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria (1485: published posthumously, first in Latin then in the vernacular).
  4. Sebastiano Serlio. Five books on Architecture. 1537 (Pioneered use of illustrations for treatises on architecture & urbanism).
  5. Palladio, I Quattro Libri dell’ Architettura (Venezia: 1570).
Eclipsed by Modernism
There is scant literature on urbanism, especially in English. The revolt of the Commune in Paris burned down city hall and with it most of the records of the modern reconstruction of Paris beginning in 1855. In the U.S., New York and Chicago built out without an urban design plan, despite efforts to the contrary. On the continent, Camillo Sitte and Josef Stübben held the center of urban design theory in Germany and Austria—although Vienna went ahead in a manner Sitte could not support—while in Great Brittain, Raymond Unwin’s work with Garden Cities studiously avoided the urban cores. If the nineteenth century produced little in the way of a science of the city, the modernist ideology about the end of history eclipsed what little headway had been made in France and Germany. The age of the machine, in hind sight, put the greatest distance between the public good and the ideal that the city was at its most fundamental level about serving human needs arising from living in community in ever greater numbers. The great economist Karl Marx failed to deliver on a theory of urbanism. Engels produce important descriptions of urban conditions in the U.K. but synthesis evaded them both.
  1. Camillo Sitte, City Planning According to Artistic Principles. Vienna: 1889 [Transl. George & Cristine Collins. New York, 1965]
  2. Hermann Josef Stübben, Der Städtebau, Reprint of the first ed., 1890, Braunschweig und Wiesbaden, Vieweg & Sohn Verlag, 1980
  3. Unwin, Raymond. Town Planning in Practice: An Introduction to the Art of Designing Cities and Suburbs. London, 1909.
  4. Hegemann & Peets, The American Vitruvius. New York, 1922
Modernism and the ‘Big Lie’
At the very moment that Image of the City (see below) was being written in Boston, the freeway that cut through the city and ripped the neighborhoods appart was underway. Lynch was silent on the freeway project. The freeway is now gone, burried underground at immense cost and effort. Yet, the damage remains: we still equivocate about the ill effects of high volumes of traffic on the buildings (and the lives) fronting. At the core of the problem is Modernism’s “Degree Zero” ideology: the ‘Big Lie’ that we cannot learn from history, and that everything must be done in a new way. Many things didn’t change. On the one hand, all of the things that relate directly to the inherent mechanisms of human sense perception and way finding that modern science could have adumbrated much more succinctly. On the other, the political imperative of catering to benefit the empowered class at all other costs.
Modernism eventually went bust on the grounds of “alienation” and “gigantism”. The culture did not reflect the needs of the people. Gideon—the strongest source of historical knowledge in professional education in anglo-america for three decades—is good for Paris and Rome, but his work ends with the freeway as ultimate liberator. The problem with the Pattern Language, another fabled work, is that the many black and white photographs that illustrate the text are not identified. Repeating the myth of “Degree Zero” we are not told that virtually every image I can remember is of an Italian hill town built before the Renaissance century.
  1. Gideon, S. Space, Time and Architecture. MIT Press, 1950.
  2. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. MIT Press, 1960.
  3. Alexander, Christopher et al. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. 1977.
  4. Lynch, Kevin. A Theory of Good City Form. MIT Press, 1981.
The Fabulous 1960’s
Looking back the early 1960’s were an incredibly fecund period for city thinking. In spite of the modernist lie about ‘the end of history’, Acherman’s Palladio is a good introduction to Renaissance urbanism and the work of Palladio. It is also a great travelling aid for the region around Vicenza and Venezia. Venturi’s second book about Las Vegas was more important in the late 1970’s, when it was still seen as an attack on the hegemony of the then reigning Modernist Cannon. Today, it may seem less relevant.
  1. Cullen, Gordon. The concise Townscape. Great Britain, 1961.
  2. Jane Jacobs. The Life and Death of the Great American Cities. 1961.
  3. Aldo Rossi. The Architecture of the City. 1961, English Trans. 1982.
  4. Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Modern Architecture. 1961.
  5. Witkower, Rudolph. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. 1962. New York, 1990.
  6. Wycherley, R.E. How the Greeks Built Cities. New York, 1962.
  7. James Ackerman. Palladio. 1966.
  8. Blumenfeld, Hans. The Modern Moetropolis. 1967.
  9. Ian McHarg. Design with Nature. 1969.
  10. Venturi, Robert et al. Learning From Las Vegas. MIT, 1972.
  11. Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. 1972 [].
The New Urbanism
We credit Andres Duany with embarking on a thorough analysis of urbanism in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Bill Lennertz tells the story that, as a student at Harvard when he first met his new teacher, Andres Duany had a copy of the American Vitruvius under his arm. The second work that needs reference is Great Streets. With this book former San Francisco Director of Planning sets out a methodology for urban design as identifying “the physical and designable parts of the best [cities]”.
  1. Rowe, Colin. Collage City. 1978 – with Fred Koetter
  2. Goldberger, Paul. The City Observed: New York. New York, 1979.
  3. Appleyard, Donald. Livable Streets. 1980.
  4. Lyndon, Donlyn. Boston: The City Observed. New York, 1982.
  5. Moudon, Anne Vernez. Built for Change: Neighborhood Architecture in San Francisco. MIT Press, 1986.
  6. Kelbaugh, Doug, ed. The Pedestrian Pocket Book: New suburban design strategy. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1989.
  7. Lennertz & Krieger. A. Duany and E. Plater Zyberg: Towns and Town Making Principles. New York, 1991.
  8. Mohney & Easterling, eds. Seaside: Making a Town in America. 1991.
  9. Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American Metropolis. New York, 1993.
  10. Allan Jacobs, Great Streets. 1993
  11. Katz, Peter. The New Urbanism. New York, 1993.
  12. Panerai, et al. Formes Urbains: de l’îlot a la barre. Paris, 1997.
  13. Fry, Kevin E., Back From The Brink. Oregon Public Broadcasting, 1997.
  14. Duany, Andres. The Lexicon of the New Urbanism. [].
  15. Congress for the New Urbanism. Charter of the New Urbanism. 1999.
  16. Duany, Andres. Suburban nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream. New York, 2000.
  17. Llewelyn Davis. Urban Design Compendium. London, 2000.[
  18. Duany, Andres, et al. The New American Vitruvius. New York, 2004.
  19. Leon Krier. The Architecture of Community. New York, 2009.
Urbanism & Planning
The city re-invents itself every fifty years. If this venerable adage holds true, post war north american urbanism is up for review. The extensive literature on the “new urbanism”—concerned with ecology, economy and social equity, with streets for people as well as for automobiles—is strong testament that the process is underway. Here are companion books mining the same vein.
  1. Barnett, Jonathan. An Introduction to Urgan Design. 1982.
  2. Krier, Leon et all. The Charlottesville Tapes. 1982.
  3. Lyndon, Donlyn. The Promise of New Urbanism: Places: A Forum of Envirnomental Design Journal. 1982.
  4. Krier, Leon. Houses, Palaces, Cities. London: AD Editions, 1984.
  5. Baird et al. Metropolitan Mutations: Architecture of Emerging Public Spaces. 1989.
  6. Myers, R.J., Ufford, P., Magil, M. S., On-site Analysis: A practical approach to organizational change, OSCA & The United Way of Canada, 1989.
  7. Collins, Richard et all. America’s Downtowns: Growth, Politics & Preservation, 1991.
  8. Easterling, Keller. American Town Plans: A Comparative Time Line. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993.
  9. Etzioni, Amatai, The Spirit of Community, 1993.
  10. Rybczynski, Witold. City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World. New York: Scribner, 1995.
  11. Fry, Kevin E., “Back From The Brink” Oregon Public Broadcasting, 1997.
  12. Kelling, George L. and Coles, Catherine M. Fixing Boken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. 1996.
  13. Public Broadcasting Service. New American Renewal. 1998.
  14. Hegemann, Werner, and Elbert Peets. The American Vitruvius: An architects’ handbook of civic art. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1988 [originally published 1922 by The Architectural Book Publishing Company, New York].
  15. Crittenden, Guy. Front Porch Challenge: The myth of the idyllic small town. The Globe and Mail, D1, June 20, 1998.
  16. Duany, Andres. Suburban nation: the rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream. 2000.
  17. Collins, Jim. Good to Great.—————2002.

Architecture and the City
Experts disagree on whether urbanism is science or art. One way out of this dilemma is to argue for both. In the work of a long tradition of architects and artists practicing as urban design professionals we find the most consistent and successfull expressions of urbanism as applied design.

  1. Phillips, Randal. Small Family Houses. London, 1924.
  2. Scully, Vincent, J. The Shingle Style and the Stick Style. 1955.
  3. Le Corbusier, The Modulor. 1958.
  4. Mumford, Lewis. The City in History. Harvest/HBJ Book, New York, 1961. Copyright, 1961 by Lewis Mumford.
  5. Witkower, R. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. 1962. John Hopkins Uniersity Press, 1990.
  6. Lynch, Kevin & Donald Appleyard, and John R. Myer. The View from the Road. (1965).
  7. Benevolo, Leonardo. Origins of Modern Town Planning. 1967.
  8. Zion, Robert L. Trees for Architecture and the Landscape. 1968
  9. Moore et al. The Place of Houses. 1970.
  10. San Francisco Planning Dept., Svirsky, Peter, ed. San Francisco Urban Design Plan. 1972.
  11. Condit, Carl. Chicago 1910-1929: Building, Planning, and Urban Technology. 1973.
  12. Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. 1976.
  13. Tafuri, Manfredo. Theories and History of Architecture. Translation, 1976.
  14. Bloomer & Moore. Body, Memory and Architecture. 1977.
  15. Gilbert, Edward R. Victorian House Colors: Exterior. 1977.
  16. Ferro, Maximilian. New Bedford Restoration Guidelines, New Bedford, Massachusetts. 1977.
  17. Jacobs, Allan B. Making City Planning Work. American Society of Planning Officials, Chicago, 1978.
  18. Johnson, Philip. Writings. Oxford University Press, 1979.
  19. Della Corte, Matteo. Pompeii. 1979.
  20. Moss, Foger W. Century of Color: Exterior Decoration for American Buildings (1820-1920). 1981.
  21. Rossi, Aldo. A Scientific Autobiography. Opposition Books, Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies and MIT, 1981.
  22. Loos, Adolf. Spoken into the Void: Collected Essays, 1897-1900. Translation by J. O. Newman and J.H. Smith. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1982.
  23. Change. Opposition Books, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1985.
  24. Ockman, Joan ed. Architecture, Criticism, Ideology. 1985.
  25. Stern, Robert A. M. Pride of Place. 1986.
  26. Benton, Tim. Les Villas de Le Corbuseir (1920 -1930). 1987.
  27. Public Streets for Public Use. 1987. HT 166P 82
  28. Lots, Wolfgang. Studies in Italian Renaissance Architecture. The MIT Press, Cambridge: 1987 third printing.
  29. Slesin, Cliff & Rozensztroch. Spanish Style. 1990.
  30. Vance, James E. Jr. The Continuing City: Urban morphology in western civilization. 1990.
  31. Kostov, Spiro. America by Design. Public Broadcasting Service, 1990.
  32. Repérant, Dominique. Villages of France. 1990.
  33. Blaser, Robin, et al. The Rocovery of the Public World. Emily Carr Symposium, Vancouver, 1995.
City Guides
Architecture Guides, Site surveys, building inventories, walking tours and local histories form an indespensible component of the overall undertanding of urbanism.
British Columbia & Vancouver:
  • Woodcock. British Columbia: A History of the Province, 1990.
  • Nikiforuk et all. Coquitlam 100 Years. 1990.
  • Norton. Early History of Port Moody. 1987.
  • Goodacre, Richard. Dunsmuir’s Dream: Ladysmith, the first fifty years. 1991.
  • Campbell & Ward. Widow Smith of Spence’s Bridge: Oral history. 1989.
  • Kalman, Phillips, & Ward. Exploring Vancouver. 1993.
  • Straley, Gerald. Trees of Vancouver. 1992.
  • Burton, Pierre. The National Dream and The Last Spike. 1974.
  • Lyndon, Donlyn. Boston: The City Observed, First Vintage Books, Random House Press, New York, 1982.
  • Muir Whitehill, Walter. Boston: A topographical History, 1967
  • Bunting, Bainbridge. Houses of Boston’s Back Bay: An architectural history 1840-1917. Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press, 1971.
  • Tucci, Douglass Shand. Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1965.
  • McVoy McIntyre, A. Beacon Hill: A walking tour, Boston: 1971.


  • Gebhard, et al. Guide to Architecture in Los Angeles & S. California, 1976.
  • Gebhard, et al. Guide to Architecture in San Francisco & N. California, 1976.
  • Moudon, Anne Vernez. Built for Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.NA7238.S35M68
  • Wladhorn, Judith Lynch. A gift to the streets: Inventory of San Francisco residential architecture. San Francisco, Antelope island Press, 1977.
  • Ferro, Maximilian L. How to love and care for your old building in New Bedford. City of New Bedford, 1977.
  • Goldberger, Paul. The City Observed: New York. First Vintage Books, Random House Press, New York, 1979.
  • Wolfe & Grenier. Discover Montreal, 1983.


  • Bach & Wolfson. Chicago on Foot, 1987.
  • Bach, Ira. Chicago’s Famous Buildings, 1969.
  • Condit, Carl W. Chicago 1910-1929: Bulding, Planning and Urban Technology. Univ. Press of Chicago, 1973.
  • Mohney & Easterling, eds. Seaside: Making a Town in America, 1976.
  • Manuncy, Albert. The Houses of St. Augustine 1565-1821. University Press of Florida, 1978.
  • Vale, Eric. Key West Building Typology. University of Florida Press, 1995.
  • Gabriel, André. Guide to the Architecture of Monuments in Paris.
  • Martin, Hervé. Guide to Modern Architecture in Paris, 1991.
  • Poisson, Georges. Guide des Statues de Paris: Monuments, Décors, Fontaines, 1990.
  • Formes Urbains
  • McHugh, Patricia. Tornoto Architecture: A City Guide, 1985.
  • Cappe, Lorne. Window on Toronto: Survey of Historical Commercial Storefronts, 1990.
  • Vaughn & McMath. A Century of Portland Architecture, 1967.
  • Tessier, Yves. An Historical Guide to Québec, 1991.
  • Dulaney, Paul S. The Architecture of Historic Richmond, Viginia, 1968.
  • Woodbridge & Montgomery. A Guide to Washington State, 1980.
Criticism & Normative Theory
Elemental analysis, criticism, and prescriptive theory furnish the framework for completing public consultation, building consensus and drafting urban design codes.
  1. Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, English translation, 1925.
  2. Mill, John Stuart. Utilitarianism, 1863.
  3. Moore, G.E. Principia Ethica, 1903.
  4. Freud, Sigmund, Civilization and Its Discontents, 1930.
  5. Campbell, Joseph, The Hero With A Thousand Faces, 1949.
  6. Hare, R. M. The Language of Morals, 1952.
  7. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies, 1957.
  8. Hauser, Arnold, The Philosophy of Art History, 1958.
  9. Jung, Carl G., The Undiscovered Self, 1958.
  10. Greenberg, Clement. Art and Culture: Critical Essays, 1961.
  11. Lang, R.D. Self and Others, 1961.
  12. Hauser, Arnold, The Social History of Art Three: Rococo, Classicism and Romanticism, 1962.
  13. Jung, Carl G., Man and His Symbols, 1962.
  14. Thompson, E.P. The Making of the English Working Class, 1963.
  15. Berlin, Isaiah. The Roots of Romanticism (recorded 1965), Chatto & Windus, 1999.
  16. Hauser, Arnold, Mannerism, 1965
  17. Lang, R.D., The Politics of Experience and the Bird of Paradise, 1967.
  18. Poggioli, Renato. The Theory of the Avant-Garde, 1968.
  19. Cunningham, Frank F., The Revolution in Landscape Science, 1973.
  20. Frye, Northrope. The Great Code, 1982.
  21. Foster, Hal. The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays in Post Modern Culture, 1983.
  22. Lang, R.D.The Voice of Experience: Experience, Science and Psychiatry, 1983.
  23. Bürger, Peter. Theory of the Avant-Garde, 1984.
  24. Foster, Hal. Recordings: Essays in Art, Spectacle, Cultural Politics, 1985.
  25. Chomsky, Noam. On Power and Ideology. Montreal, 1987.
  26. Chomsky, Noam. The Culture of Terrorism, 1988.
  27. Colquhoun, Alan. Essays in Architectural Criticism: Modern Architecture and Historical Change. Cambridge, MIT Pres, 1989.
  28. Said, Edward W., Culture and Imperialism, 1993.
  29. Levine, Steven. Monet, Narcissus and Self-Reflection: The Modernist Myth of the Self, 1994.
  30. Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory, 1995.
  31. Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human c.1998.