1. Trevi Fountain
Next, cross the arrow-straight Via del Corso, the cardo of the Roman plan. Looking north along Via del Corso you can see the northern gate ¾ miles away at Piazza del Popolo. P. del Popolo itself is a worthy destination with Bernini’s twin churches, and Santa Maria del Popolo (the older sister in the NE corner) home to Caravaggio’s masterpiece “Vision of St Paul” and art by Rome’s beloved Raffaello.
Wikipedia | Google Images
3. The Pantheon (drawing by Panini c. 1720)
The Pantheon was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The obelisk of Ramses II stands outside in the Piazza, one of 13 obelisks of ancient Egypt brought to Rome in ancient times and re-erected in the Renaissance and Baroque centuries.
4. Piazza della Minerva & Sta. Maria Sopra Minerva
5. Piazza Navona
Return to the Pantheon and exit the square heading west towards Piazza Navona. After walking for one block you will encounter an inmovable obstacle: a city block stands in the way of getting to Piazza Navona. Go around to the right or the left. If you go left, then you will be walking beside of La Sapienza, the University of Rome. It counts among its buildings and courtyards a stunning masterpiece: Borromini’s chapel of Sant’Ivo (1650) complete with a magnificent courtyard outside. Once you are around the large city block find the small street that leads into the Navona. At night a clue that leads in the right direction is given by the din made by people talking at Piazza Navona. The noise is audible from more than a block away, growing louder as one approaches.
6. Campo dei Fiori
7. Palazzo and Piazza Farnese (c. 1500)
Exit the campo south and walk for one block to Piazza Farnese, fronted by the Palazzo Farnese (now French Embassy) begun c1513 and designed by a who’s-who of Renaissance artists: Bramante, Sangallo the Younger, Michelangelo, Vignola and Giacomo della Porta. The twin fountains in the piazza are crafted from bathtubs taken from the Baths of Caracala.
Standing facing the Palazzo Farnese, the French Embassy, exit the Piazza on the street along the left side of the Palazzo. The street terminates in a fountain called the Mascherone. As you make your way down the street make sure to look back over the garden wall on your right to see the garden façade of the Palazzo. The three arches in the rear side are by Michelangelo, as is the arch that spans over the street with the Mascherone.
8. The Mascherone (1626)
One block away from the Piazza Farnese, walking towards the Tiber, is Via Giulia, Rome’s most important Renaissance Street. The Mascherone wall fountain is famous the world over, if not exactly a great work of art.
A pedestrian bridge links Rome to its ancient neighbourhood Across-the-Tiber or Tras-Tevere. Finding your way to the centre of Trastevere is easy: just follow the fall in the ground and you will arrive at Sta. Maria in Trastevere beckoning from one of the oldest squares in Rome.
This wonderful neighbourhood, somewhat invaded by tourists, dares us to sit in a local restaurant for a meal or a brief sojourn. Our objective here is Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere, the urban room at the heart of this venerable Roman quartier. Getting there is half the fun. Once more, there are no straight routes. However, the fall of the floor or the ground plane towards the square is a powerful urban trope to assisting our way finding. The Byzentine basilica fronting the square makes its presence felt from whatever side we may approach it.
11. Sta. Maria in Trastevere
Here, and at Sta. Maria Maggiore, we can glimpse one of the most remarkable legacies of the medieval period. The Apse mosaic of Christ seated with his mother the Virgin Mary. The pair looks for all practical purposes as the depiction of a Bride and Groom, not a mother and son. Might it not be the mother that was depicted?
A quarter of a mile away as the crow flies from Santa Maria in Trastevere stands one of the greatest works of the Renaissance. Tucked away in San Pietro in Montorio is Bramante’s Tempietto (little temple, 1502), scaled to function either as a garden folly or as the center piece of a never realized cloister or courtyard of a quality impossible to imagine. Leon Batista Alberti had proposed a round colonnaded temple of smallish proportions at the center of his painting of an ideal city square (the Urbino Panel c1460s), and written the first treatise on classical architecture since antiquity. The Tempietto renders the theory concrete and palpable even at this diminutive scale. It picks up on Alberti’s ideas and sets the model for all Renaissance architects to follow, from Michelangelo to Palladio to Borromini.
Tiempietto: detail of square column capital meeting the round lintel
The date given for its completion makes it contemporary to Michelangelo’s David (1501 – 04) executed in the northern Medici stronghold of Firenze (Florence), and Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa is believed executed between 1503 and 1506.
The Meaning of Place
The distance covered by the walking tour is about 2 k.m. long, taking 20 minutes to walk if you don’t stop (shown in a dotted red line). Of course, the point is to stop and take in the sights. So this walk can take a half day, a full day, or more. However, by the time you get to know the route you will have strung together a series of squares or urban rooms, each one unique and unforgettable, that will become mental images or nodes in your mental map of the Eternal City. From this spine you can connect any number of other destinations.
In fact, our detour to see Bernini’s Elephant with Obelisk is an example of the functioning of the urban spine as an organizing principle in cities or urban places. A second example would be finding Sta. Maria della Pace to see Bramante’s masterful cloister (1504). It is located to the west of Piazza Navona. Exit the piazza just north of Bernini’s fountain of the four rivers and turn right at the second block. Look north and you will see the round portico of S. M. della Pace. The courtyard or cloister is through the main doors to the left. We experience the ordering of urban space in Roma as the natural extension of our sense perception and orientational abilities.
I met a fellow traveler at the piazza of the Pantheon one night. I had map, sketchbook and camera in my hands, she had a map out. She spoke English and asked me if I knew the direction to the Trevi Fountain. I pointed her in the right direction, then remarked that Piazza Navona lay in the same axis, but in the opposite direction. “Oh,” she said, “If Navona is over there, then I know how to get to Trevi from Navona.” I smiled as she set off to Piazza Navona, realizing that she was in the process of building her own mental map of Rome.
It is worthwhile to note that according to Google Map it would take 32 minutes and we would cover 9.3 km to drive to all the same destinations (shown with blue arrows in the map). The streets that connect these places are too small for the cars, thus traffic is sent on a maze of one-way routes that lead in all different directions.
Finally, it is by now obvious that all along this route there are places to see and things to explore. These vary according to the traveller’s own interest and taste. The Wikipedia links provided can be used to get some ideas. However, the route itself and the experience of having moved through the most labyrinthian section of Rome unscathed has its own intrinsic meaning. It is the experience of human scale in urbanism: a city designed, built and fine-tuned over two millennia to resonate with the human experience of place.
The size and shape of each of these urban rooms, as well as the height of the fronting buildings that enclose them, have been determined to fit within the proportions that are most pleasing to the eye. The distance that separates each of these destinations, typically no more than 5 minutes walking, is also calculated to make it easy to go from one place to the other—a pleasure, rather than a challenge. Finally, the manner in which all these destinations combine, and set up in relation to the rest of the city, works our innate way finding abilities. I have not experienced another place in the western world that resonates so perfectly with our physical and mental abilities to experience place.